ACSBlog

  • August 9, 2016

    by Gail Deady, The Secular Society Women’s Rights Legal Fellow, ACLU of Virginia

    On Aug. 3, 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court granted an “emergency” stay to stop Gavin Grimm, a 17-year-old transgender boy from Gloucester, Va., from using the boys’ bathroom at his public high school.

    Gavin lives every aspect of his life as a boy. He has a deep voice and facial hair, and his state ID says he is a male. Gavin’s presence in the Gloucester High School’s restrooms – which have long, tall partitions surrounding the urinals and enclosing the toilets – poses no threat to other students’ privacy.

    Yet, the Gloucester County School Board in 2014 enacted a policy banning transgender students from using school restrooms that match their gender identity. Gavin is now the only boy at Gloucester High School who is required to use the restroom in the nurse’s office or a unisex single-user restroom instead of the boys’ restrooms.

    With help from the ACLU and ACLU of Virginia, Gavin bravely challenged the Board’s policy as constituting sex discrimination under the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits all discrimination in educational activities on the basis of sex.

    Gavin’s case has received national attention due to the United States’ Statement of Interest in support of his Title IX claim, and interpreting one of Title IX’s implementing regulations, 34 CFR §106.33, which allows schools to segregate restrooms by sex, to require schools to allow transgender students to use restrooms that match their gender identity. In a landmark decision, the Fourth Circuit reversed the district court’s dismissal of Gavin’s Title IX claim and deferred to the DOE’s interpretation of §106.33 under Auer v. Robbins.

    On remand, the district court granted a limited injunction allowing only Gavin to use only the boys’ restrooms at GHS. It did not apply to anyone else, or affect any other school. It simply allowed Gavin to start his senior year of high school without the shame and stigma of being labeled as “other” every time he has to pee.

  • August 8, 2016

    by Beau Tremitiere, Co-Chair of Election RAVE Campaign, a nonpartisan initiative to increase electoral participation of law students and faculty; ACS Next Generation Leader; and Editor-in-Chief of the Northwestern University Law Review. 

    Voting rights advocates are rejoicing in the wake of recent rulings striking down restrictive voting laws in Wisconsin, Texas, North Dakota, Kansas and North Carolina. And rightfully so—even ignoring the invidious nature of such intentional and targeted discrimination, these and similar measures threaten to disenfranchise hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of voters. Such absurd and pointless restrictions have no place in our republican democracy: it is encouraging to see, finally, a forceful rejection of the flawed premise motivating the Supreme Court’s disastrous Shelby County v. Holder ruling in 2013. Unlike alleged voter fraud, voter suppression is real and rampant, and if the courts abdicate their duty to stand up for the underrepresented, pernicious state and local officials will seize the opportunity to keep them down. 

    Yet, at best, these victories address mere symptoms of deeper systemic problems, and at worst, they may prove hollow absent meaningful and concerted action. Voting rights on paper are worth little unless we the people, and especially those of us in the legal profession, ensure that they’re enforced before and on Election Day. Speedy and competent poll workers are needed to prevent long lines from deterring time-pressed voters, and diligent election monitors are needed to detect foul play and correct honest mistakes. Moreover, the obstacles to full and informed voter participation extend well beyond new voter ID laws, selective purges of registration rolls, and targeted poll closures. Even in the record-breaking 2008 election, well before many of today’s most egregious voting restrictions were put into place, nearly four out of 10 eligible voters—more than 80 million Americans—did not cast their ballots. During the 2014 midterms, turnout among voters under 44 years of age was less than 29 percent. There are myriad reasons for our embarrassingly low electoral participation, but the obvious and possibly most significant one is that we hold our elections in the middle of the week, when most Americans are either at work or in the classroom.

  • August 3, 2016

    By Kevin Battersby Witenoff

    Clare Foran in The Atlantic discusses the impact that a recently signed Massachusetts bill will have on eliminating gender-based discrimination in the workplace.

    The recent voting rights victories across the country are examined by Richard L. Hasen at The New York Times.

    Emily Badger of The Washington Post describes a type of overt housing discrimination that is still legal and unfairly targets the poor.

    Delaware’s death-penalty statute was found to be in violation of the Sixth Amendment reports Matt Ford of The Atlantic.

  • August 2, 2016

    By Kevin Battersby Witenoff

    In the Huffington Post, Michael Curtis reflects on the recent decision in North Carolina’s 4th Circuit Court and shares his belief that there is still hope that democratic ideas will prevail across the country.

    Citing a new report produced by the United Nations, Thaddeus Talbot uses the ACLU’s Blog to decry that our right to assembly is being eroded.

    Sarah Kliff explains that there is more to the gender wage gap than meets the eye in an article for Vox. She shares often overlooked contributions to the perpetual gap.

    In Slate, Zachary Roth highlights the recent major voting rights victories across the country and challenges us, and our courts, to go even further. 

  • August 1, 2016
    Guest Post

    by Jess Pezley, Staff Attorney, American Association for Justice. This post reflects the views of Ms. Pezley and not those of the AAJ. For more information on California’s End of Life Option Act, please visit endoflifeoption.org.

    Earlier this year, on June 9, California’s End of Life Option Act went into effect. Closely modeled after Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act, the statute allows mentally competent adult residents, diagnosed with a terminal illness with a six-month or less prognosis, to voluntarily obtain and ingest a prescription to hasten their dying process.   

    For decades, advocacy organizations such as Compassion & Choices, have been fighting for increased end-of-life options, including medical aid-in-dying. In 1994, by voter initiative, Oregon became the first state to allow medical aid-in-dying. The law did not take effect until 1997, after a protracted legal battle to block it ended when voters rejected a legislature-sponsored initiative to repeal the law. Following the victory in Oregon, Washington passed a voter initiative in 2008, the Montana Supreme Court authorized medical aid in dying in 2009 (the only state to do so by judicial decree), and Vermont became the first legislature to authorize an end-of-life options bill in 2013.

    At the United States Supreme Court, progress towards medical aid-in-dying was seen in Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health (acknowledging a constitutional right for individuals to refuse unwanted medical treatment) and Washington v. Glucksberg (acknowledging a constitutional right to palliative care, despite denying to recognize a constitutional right to medical aid-in-dying). Yet after years of advocacy, only a small handful of states had authorized medical aid-in-dying as an end-of-life option.

    Then, in 2014, a 29-year-old woman with terminal brain cancer recorded a video that started a nationwide conversation. Viewed today over 11 million times, Brittany Maynard’s video advocates for the option to access medical aid-in-dying, not only in her home state of California, but across the nation. Her story—how she reluctantly uprooted her life and moved from her home in the San Francisco Bay Area to Oregon to access the state’s Death with Dignity Act—shaped the medical aid-in-dying movement for millions of Americans.

    Brittany Maynard dedicated the final months of her life to increasing awareness of medical aid-in-dying; her message did not go unheard. In 2015, 25 state legislatures and the D.C. city council introduced medical aid-in-dying bills, and on October 5, 2015, Governor Brown signed into law the End of Life Option Act in Brittany’s home state of California.