The Senate Judiciary Committee is considering a bill – passed along partisan lines in the House – that threatens the way Americans have enforced the law for seventy five years. The bill is called the Fairness in Class Action Litigation Act (FICALA) and its results are likely to strike a major blow against class actions and aggregate litigation.
The recent hearings on Supreme Court nominee Neil Gorsuch highlighted the threat that current lawmakers pose to the administrative state – the apparatus that has, since the New Deal, allowed the executive to pass regulations that support our voting rights, clean air and water, workplace safety and more. But in the discussions one thing seems to have been missing: a major way that regulations are enforced in the United States is by individuals and groups bringing lawsuits. Congress has enabled these lawsuits by creating private rights of action in areas as diverse as employment discrimination and internet privacy.
For the last thirty years, the Supreme Court has been eroding these regulations by creating barriers to suit: forced arbitration has been repeatedly upheld (even when it goes against state contract law), requirements for bringing a claim have increased and collective actions are harder to certify. If most of the enforcement of the law is left up to us, through the courts, the process of shutting the courthouse door also means that regulations will not be enforced. Now Congress is taking its turn to shut the courthouse door.