This year, for the second time in sixteen years, the winner of the national popular vote tally will not be the winner of the Electoral College vote and will not, consequently, be the next president of our country. In other words, this year, for the second time in sixteen years, the candidate who received the most votes from American voters will not win the election. This can and does happen, of course, because of the Electoral College system.
There are many proffered explanations for why the Electoral College was created and maintained and none of them are particularly flattering to our democracy. The racist roots of the Electoral College are obvious. At the time our constitution was created, representatives to the U.S. House of Representatives were apportioned based on the three-fifths compromise, which counted each slave as three-fifths of a person for purposes of apportionment. This allowed for increased representation in southern slave states even though slaves could not vote. Subsequently, each state was given a number of electors to the Electoral College equivalent to the state’s two senators plus its number of representatives, furthering the skewed representation by slave states.
Though it may not have been the reason the Electoral College was created, it soon became equally obvious that the institution furthered a sexist agenda as well. In a direct national popular vote system, a state could double its potential influence in an election by extending the franchise to women. With the Electoral College, though, a state would have the same influence regardless of how many people voted. Thus, the Electoral College disincentivized expanding the franchise and allowed for the continued disfranchisement of women with impunity.